Arthur is a village in and the county seat of Arthur County, Nebraska. Its population at the 2000 census was 145.
The Pilgrim Holiness Church and the First Arthur County Courthouse and Jail complex are listed in the National Register of Historic Places. The latter is known as the smallest courthouse built in the country. Both sites are maintained by the Arthur County Historical Society.
The population predominantly comprises White Americans. A small portion of the population comprises people of Hispanic origin.